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Cultures retain their distinctive patterns through time. In global capitalism, although Canadian culture, French culture, Malaysian culture and Kazakhstani culture will share certain features like rationalization and commodification, they also differ in terms of languages, beliefs, dietary practices, and other ways of life.
They adapt and respond to capitalism in unique manners according to their specific shared heritages. Local cultural forms have the capacity to restrain the changes produced by globalization. On the other hand, the diversity of local cultures is increasingly limited by the homogenizing pressures of globalization. Economic practices that prove inefficient or uncompetitive in the global market disappear. The meanings of cultural practices and knowledges change as they are turned into commodities for tourist consumption or are patented by pharmaceutical companies.
Globalization increasingly restrains cultural forms, practices, and possibilities. There is a dynamic within culture of innovation and restriction. The cultural fabric of shared meanings and orientations that allows individuals to make sense of the world and their place within it can either change with contact with other cultures or with changes in the socioeconomic formation, allowing people to reinvision and reinvent themselves, or it can remain rigid and restrict change. Many contemporary issues to do with identity and belonging, from multiculturalism and hybrid identities to religious fundamentalism, can be understood within this dynamic of innovation and restriction.
Similarly, the effects of social change on ways of life, from the new modes of electronic communication to failures to respond to climate change, involve a tension between innovation and restriction. Making Connections: Human experience is essentially meaningful, and culture is the source of the meanings that humans share. What are the consequences of this emphasis on the meaningfulness of human experience? What elements of social life become visible if we focus on the social processes whereby meanings are produced and circulated? Culture is the term used to describe this dimension of meaningful collective existence.
Culture refers to the shared symbols that people create to solve real-life problems. What this perspective entails is that human experience is essentially meaningful or cultural. Human social life is necessarily conducted through the meanings humans attribute to things, actions, Chapter 5 dating coupling and mate selection. im standing right here, and themselves. In a sense, people do not live in direct, immediate contact with the world and each other; instead, they live only indirectly through the medium of the shared meanings provided by culture.
This mediated experience is the experience of culture. The sociology of culture is, therefore, concerned with the study of how things and actions assume meanings, how these meanings orient human behaviour, and how social life is organized around and through meaning. Max Weber notes that it is possible to imagine situations in which human experience appears direct and unmediated; for example, someone taps your knee and your leg jerks forward, or you are riding your bike and get hit by a carpp. In these situations, experience seems purely physical, unmediated. Yet when we assimilate these experiences into our lives, we do so by making them meaningful events.
By tapping your knee, the doctor is looking for signs that indicate the functioning of your nervous system. She or he is literally reading the reactions as symbolic events and assigning them meaning within the context of an elaborate cultural map of meaning: But afterwards, when you reconstruct the story for your friends, the police, or the insurance company, the event would become part of your life through this narration of what happened. Equally important to note here is that the meaning of these events changes depending on the cultural context. A doctor of traditional Chinese medicine would read the knee reflex differently than a graduate of the UBC medical program.
The problem of meaning in sociological analysis, then, is to determine how events or things acquire meaning e. Sociological research into culture studies all of these problems of meaning. Culture and Biology The central argument put forward in this chapter is that human social life is essentially meaningful and, therefore, has to be understood first through an analysis of the cultural practices and institutions that produce meaning. Nevertheless, a fascination in contemporary culture persists for finding biological or genetic explanations for complex human behaviours that would seem to contradict the emphasis on culture.
In one study, Swiss researchers had a group of women smell unwashed T-shirts worn by different men. The researchers argued that sexual attraction had a biochemical basis in the histo-compatibility signature that the women detected in the male pheromones left behind on the T-shirts. Women were attracted to the T-shirts of the men whose immune systems differed from their own Wedekind et al. In another study, Dean Hamer b. Therefore, women were thought to be able to use both sides of their brains simultaneously when processing visuo-spatial information, whereas men used only their left hemisphere.
In each of these three cases, the authors reduced a complex cultural behaviour — sexual attraction, homosexuality, cognitive ability — to a simple biological determination. Nevertheless, they follow a logic of explanation known as biological determinism, which argues that the forms of human society and human behaviour are determined by biological mechanisms like genetics, instinctual behaviours, or evolutionary advantages. Sociobiological propositions are constructed in three steps Lewontin, First they identify an aspect of human behaviour which appears to be universal, common to all people in all times and places.
Second, they assume that this universal trait must be coded in the DNA of the species. There is a gene for detecting histo-compatibility that leads instinctively to mate selection. Third, they make an argument for why this behaviour or characteristic increases the chances of survival for individuals and, therefore, creates reproductive advantage. Mating with partners whose immune systems complement your own leads to healthier offspring who survive to reproduce your genes. Is male aggression innate? Another implication of his argument was that if aggression is instinctual, then the idea that individuals, militant groups, or states could be held responsible for acts of violence or war loses its validity.
However, a central problem of sociobiology as a type of sociological explanation is that while human biology does not vary greatly throughout history or between cultures, the forms of human association do vary extensively.
It is difficult to account for Chapter 5 dating coupling and mate selection. im standing right here variability of social phenomena by using a universal biological mechanism to explain them. Even something like the aggressive tendency in males, which on the surface has an intuitive appeal, does not account for the multitude of different forms and practices of aggression, let alone the different social circumstances in which aggression is manifested or provoked. It Chapteer not account for why some men are aggressive sometimes and not at other times, or why some men are not aggressive at all. If testosterone is the key seldction. of male aggression, it does not account for the fact that both men and women generate testosterone in more or less equal quantities.
Nor does it explain the universal tendencies of all societies to develop sanctions and norms to curtail violence. To suggest that aggression is datinf innate biological characteristic means that it does not vary greatly throughout history, nor between cultures, and is impervious copling Chapter 5 dating coupling and mate selection. im standing right here social rules that restrict it in all societies. Ultimately, this means that ddating is no point in trying change it despite the evidence that aggression in individuals and societies Cuapter be changed. For example, research has shown that newborns and fetuses as young as 26 weeks have a simple smile: This observation about a seemingly straightforward biological behaviour suggests that smiling is inborn, a muscular reflex based on neurological connections.
However, the smile of the newborn is not staanding to convey emotions. It occurs spontaneously during rapid eye irght REM sleep. Only when the baby matures and begins to interact with his or her environment and caretakers Chaptfr the smile begin to represent a response to standinng stimuli. Moreover, from the age of 6 months to 2 years, the smile itself changes physically: Different muscle groups are used, and different facial expressions are blended with it surprise, anger, excitement. The smile becomes more complex and individualized.
Therefore, social scientists see explanations of human behaviour based on biological determinants as extremely limited in scope and value. These sometimes radical differences between cultures have to be accounted for instead by their distinct processes of socialization through which individuals learn standung to participate in their societies. From this point of view, as the anthropologist Margaret Mead put it: We are forced to conclude that human nature is almost unbelievably malleable, responding accurately and contrastingly to contrasting cultural conditions. The differences between individuals who are members of different cultures, like the differences between individuals within a datiing, are almost entirely to be laid to differences in conditioning, especially during early childhood, and the form of this conditioning is culturally determined Aside from the explanatory problems of biological determinism, it is important to bear in mind the social consequences of biological determinism, as these ideas have been used to support rigid cultural ideas concerning race, gender, disabilities, etc.
Several hundred individuals were also sterilized in British Columbia between and McLaren, The interesting question that these biological explanations of complex human behaviour raise is: Why are they so popular? What is it about our culture that makes the biological explanation of behaviours or experiences like sexual attraction, which we know from personal experience to be extremely complicated and nuanced, so appealing? As micro-biological technologies like genetic engineering and neuro-pharmaceuticals advance, the very real prospect of altering the human body at a fundamental level to produce culturally desirable qualities health, ability, intelligence, beauty, etc.
If the old eugenics movement promoted selective breeding and forced sterilization in order to improve the biological qualities and, in particular, the racial qualities of whole populations, the new eugenics is focused on calculations of individual risk or individual self-improvement and self-realization. In the new eugenics, individuals choose to act upon the genetic information provided by doctors, geneticists, and counsellors to make decisions for their children or themselves Rose, This movement is based both on the commercial aspirations of biotechnology companies and the logic of a new biological determinism or geneticism, which suggests that the qualities of human life are caused by genes Rose, The concept of the gene is a relatively recent addition to the way in which people begin to think about themselves in relationship to their bodies.
Where do I come from; who am I; and what will happen to me in the future? The gene has shifted from its specific place within the parameters of medical science to become a source of popular understanding and speculation: The popularization of the idea of the gene entails the development of a new relationship to the human body, health, and the genetic predispositions to health risks as we age. On the basis of what might happen to her based on probabilities of risk from genetic models she decided to take drastic measures to avoid the breast cancer that her mother died of. Her very public stance on her surgery was to raise public awareness of the genetic risks of cancers that run in families and to normalize a medical procedure that many would be hesitant to take.
At the same time she further implanted a notion of the gene as a site of invisible risk in peoples lives, encouraging more people to think about themselves in terms of their hidden dispositions to genetically programmed diseases. Angelina Jolie Like biological determinism in general, the gene introduces a kind of fatalism into the understanding of human life and human possibility. Cultural Universals Often, a comparison of one culture to another will reveal obvious differences. But all cultures share common elements. Cultural universals are patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies. One example of a cultural universal is the family unit: Every human society recognizes a family structure that regulates sexual reproduction and the care of children.
Even so, how that family unit is defined and how it functions vary. In many Asian cultures, for example, family members from all generations commonly live together in one household. In Canada, by contrast, individuals are expected to leave home and live independently for a period before forming a family unit consisting of parents and their offspring. Anthropologist George Murdock first recognized the existence of cultural universals while studying systems of kinship around the world. Murdock found that cultural universals often revolve around basic human survival, such as finding food, clothing, and shelter, or around shared human experiences, such as birth and death, or illness and healing.
Through his research, Murdock identified other universals including language, the concept of personal names, and, interestingly, jokes. Basic account: Free See Details The gist: Like every other site that ranks queer dating apps, we've pretty much been bashing Tinder the whole time. While it does have its flaws and shallow reputation, we still couldn't leave it off the list. Because of the sheer numbers and how dominant of a player it has become, it seems like we're comparing everything to Tinderand constantly asking "Does Tinder have this?
Seeing how it's so popular, whatever it's doing must be working. Yes, we know you've heard or have had your own horror stories, but you have to appreciate that Tinder makes you aware of potential boos in the area that you never knew existed before. It's a little shallow, but it gets shit done. The setup: We probably don't have to explain this one as everyone and their mother has given Tinder a try at some point. And, Seventeen, we copied the gimbals and watched them and they looked good.
The nest ties to be planned for rgiht 5 to 7 more stages. As the most opens, the music is enough and transparent with a number of sadness. We can give at that point for 20 years and shift a 20 million dollar while the introduction crew here articles themselves that they have established out a trade center and a premium around to the template.
Mission Control had telemetry data on the status of the tank and would have alerted us if they saw a problem. This meant that after a premature second stage shutdown, the single J-2 engine of the S-IVB could deliver us to a stable, long term Earth orbit from which we could conduct a disappointing, but still productive Earth-orbit mission of observation and photography. How does that sound? We got to get through this one [S-II cutoff] and then through staging. Stand by for inboard [J-2] cutoff]. Inboard [scheduled] at Stand by. Inboard [cut-off] on time. No certain fix of this problem appeared possible so the conservative approach was to shut it down early and to also shutdown the inboard engine of the first stage early as well, just in case.
The other four engines would burn to propellant depletion, giving us most of the energy, but not the acceleration, that five engines would have provided. Level Sense ARM will be at 36 [8 minutes Chapter 5 dating coupling and mate selection. im standing right here 36 seconds]. You are GO for staging. We are GO for staging up here. We got to get through this one [staging]. And little S-IVB — burn, baby, burn! Mode IV capability, and we copy cut-off. Mode IV. And we do have S-IVB ignition! Our altitude was actually slightly above the planned orbit of These milestones passed in a space of five seconds around nine minutes and 20 seconds.
We see it, and the thrust is looking good on it. Evans shouted. We got a lot to do. Cernan continued to state the obvious. You are GO for orbit. Less than two minutes left on the Saturn, and we now knew that the chances were very good that there would be nothing to keep us from making it to Earth orbit. Orbit insertion approached with increasing anticipation. For Evans and me, this would be our first real exposure to space! We had earned our gold astronaut pins several minutes earlier as an altitude of 50 miles went past on the S-II second stage, however, true space flight would be very different. And cut-off will be at 11 plus 47, 11 plus And standing by [for cut-off].
Cut-off time is still holding good — 11 plus This was about feet per second less than expected but nothing to be concerned about. GO orbit, nominal. Thank you! Even though we watched the computer displays and mission timer count us down to S-IVB shutdown, sudden weightlessness came as a complete surprise. No weight! Now the sensation went on and on! Moving from place to place by slight finger or hand pressure on a strut or panel felt like swimming without any water. Only cautions concerning motion sickness given by others who had been there before and the demands of the post-insertion checklist kept me from playing with the tumbling abandon of a child. I found that if I stopped moving for a few minutes, these symptoms would go away, and I could start up again.
Repeating this procedure several times over the next few hours seemed to gradually provide some immunity against any significant adaptation discomfort. Cernan and Evans would appear to be not so fortunate. Vanguard, stationed in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida, had supported launch communications. Volts are And I confirm that one [shows OFF]. The continued dedication of the thousands of American workers who were still required for this single mission encourages me to this day. One of my favorites is that penned by my good friend and co-editor of this diary, the late author and political humorist William Mellberg.
It was an incredible sight. Then there was a rumble, not a roar, as the Saturn V slowly rose from the pad amidst clouds of steam and smoke produced by the water used to cool the pad as it was blasted by the heat of the engines. I thought I could feel that heat. I certainly felt the ground shaking. What a light and sound show! At the 1-minute mark, the sky was becoming dark again as the Saturn V flew higher and farther away. It now looked more like a comet with its long, bright tail. We could also hear the crew over the loudspeakers.
When the first stage engines shut down after two and one-half minutes, we could see the nozzles glowing bright red and still trailing smoke. Meanwhile, the second stage engines had ignited, and they produced a steady, white light that grew smaller and less intense as the vehicle picked up speed and distance.
I was awestruck. So was my Dad. So was everyone around us. We were all amazed by what we had just witnessed. Directly in front of us, steam was still rising from Pad A. The thunderous sound of the Moon Rocket had been replaced by the noisy chatter of the crowd— recounting what they had just seen. Most people were too busy talking to hear the ongoing coverage from the public address system. Apollo 17 was approaching the coast of Africa as we headed back toward the buses and the ride back to the Visitors Information Center. No one was going away disappointed that night. It was truly a once-in-a-lifetime experience.
As the vehicle cleared the tower, the flame seemed much more intense than anything I had ever seen. By the time it was 10 degrees above the horizon, the entire sky lit up in an odd greenish yellow glow. It was like daylight on another planet. And for one last time, three Americans departed Earth for a trip to the moon. The nighttime darkness vanished in the harsh light of a klieg-light white dawn, showing the flat expanse of dunes, wetlands, and tropical scrub growth to the far horizons. I gaped open mouthed at this manmade wonder, and forgot about the oncoming shock of sound until it hit my ears with staccato fury and sent earth tremors up my legs. Then as we stared in wonder, the Sun slowly transformed into a brilliant star and the shrinking rocket became less distinct in its glare.
For several minutes our eyes were riveted skyward, until the sound bombardment faded to a distant rumble and the departing moonship was a dimming star. Darkness reclaimed its rightful reign over southern Florida, but the curving trail of fluffy white exhaust cloud, luminous in the light of the target Moon, attested to the reality of the miracle we had all witnessed. As I read, Cernan and sometimes Evans would confirm the changes from the launch switch and circuit breaker configurations. I kept close watch in order to be sure what I called out was actually done, as Cernan had an Apollo 10 history of switch position confusion and a well-known susceptibility to becoming distracted.
I first turned past the Checklist page that gave the emergency procedures for using small Reaction Control rockets needed to de-orbit if there was an inadvertent separation of America from its Service Module just after orbit insertion and while the abort systems were still armed. Yes, sir. It is OFF! I suspect that I had worked alone with the test engineers for some time to resolve a problem that arose during the test. That was me. Helmets and gloves finally came off and were stowed in their bags ready for use if an emergency so required. The crew reported an orbit of about We expect that it will be on the order of 8 to l0 minutes early.
We would expect that the time of arrival at the Moon will be approximately the same as the flight plan time in terms of Greenwich Mean Time.